Social Studies » Global History & Geography 1 & 2

Global History & Geography 1 & 2

Welcome to Global History and Geography 1 & 2. These two courses are the foundation for the ninth and tenth grade.  Global 1 & 2 begins with the Paleolithic Era and the development of the first civilizations, continues with an examination of classical societies, and traces the expansion of trade networks and their global impact. The course emphasizes the key themes of interactions over time, shifts in political power, and the role of belief systems (NYS Social Studies Framework).  Below you will find each unit with helpful video links to assist with your studies.  
                                                                    Unit 1
                               The First Civilizations, ca. 10,000 B.C.E. – ca. 630 C.E.
9.1 DEVELOPMENT OF CIVILIZATION: The development of agriculture enabled the rise of the first civilizations, located primarily along river valleys; these complex societies were influenced by geographic conditions, and shared a number of defining political, social, and economic characteristics.
9.1a Paleolithic Age and the Neolithic Age
9.1b and 9.1c Complex Civilizations
How did complex civilizations adapt to and modify their environment to meet the needs of their population?  What are the shared common characteristics of religion, job specialization, cities, government, language/writing systems, technology, social hierarchy, and the unique contributions of these complex civilizations?
                                                                   Unit 2
                                       9.2 BELIEF SYSTEMS: RISE AND IMPACT 
The emergence and spread of belief systems influenced and shaped the development of cultures, as well as their traditions and identities. Important similarities and differences between these belief systems are found in their core beliefs, ethical codes, practices, and social relationships.
9.2a and 9.2b Development and beliefs and practices of different belief systems. How are these belief systems similar and different?
Unit 3
Classical Societies, 600 B.C.E. – ca. 900 C.E.
9.3 CLASSICAL CIVILIZATIONS: EXPANSION, ACHIEVEMENT, DECLINE: Classical civilizations in Eurasia and Mesoamerica employed a variety of methods to expand and maintain control over vast territories. They developed lasting cultural achievements. Both internal and external forces led to the eventual decline of these empires.
9.3a  Geographic Factors of Ancient Civilizations
9.3b How did empires use belief systems, systems of law, forms of government, military forces, and social hierarchies to consolidate and expand power? 
9.4c Why did the Golden Ages prosper?
9.3d Issues, Conflicts, and invasions led to the downfall of several of these civilizations. 
                                                     An Age of Expanding Connections, ca. 500 – ca. 1500
Unit 4
9.4 RISE OF TRANSREGIONAL TRADE NETWORKS: During the classical and postclassical eras, transregional trade networks emerged and/or expanded. These networks of exchange influenced the economic and political development of states and empires.
9.4a Afro-Eurasian transregional trade networks grew across land and bodies of water.
9.4b New technologies facilitated and improved interregional travel during this era by allowing people to traverse previously prohibitive physical landscapes and waterways.
9.4c Interregional travelers, traders, missionaries, and nomads carried products and natural resources, and brought with them enslaved people and ideas that led to cultural diffusion
9.4d Control of transregional trade and economic growth contributed to the emergence and expansion of political states.
                                                                             Unit 5
9.5 POLITICAL POWERS AND ACHIEVEMENTS: New power arrangements emerged across Eurasia. Political states and empires employed a variety of techniques for expanding and maintaining control. Periods of relative stability allowed for significant cultural, technological, and scientific innovations. 
9.5a Following the fall of the Roman Empire, divergent societies emerged in Europe.
9.5b Political states and empires employed a variety of techniques for expanding and
maintaining control, and sometimes disrupted state-building in other regions
9.5c Periods of stability and prosperity enabled cultural, technological, and scientific achievements and innovations that built on or blended with available knowledge, and often led to cultural diffusion
                                                                          Unit 6
9.6 SOCIAL AND CULTURAL GROWTH AND CONFLICT: During the postclassical era, the
growth of transregional empires and the use of trade networks influenced religions and
spread disease. These cross-cultural interactions also led to conflict and affected
demographic development.
9.6a Internal tensions and challenges grew as disputes over authority and power arose between and among religious and political leaders.
9.6b Networks of exchange facilitated the spread of disease, which affected social, cultural, economic, and demographic development.
                                                         Global Interactions, ca. 1400 – 1750
                                                                              Unit 7
9.7 THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE AND THE MING DYNASTY PRE-1600: Islam, Neo-Confucianism, and Christianity each influenced the development of regions and shaped key centers of power in the world between 1368 and 1683. The Ottoman Empire and the Ming Dynasty were two powerful states, each with a view of itself and its place in the world.
9.7a Three belief systems influenced numerous, powerful states and empires across the Eastern Hemisphere.
9.7b The dominant belief systems and the ethnic and religious compositions of the Ottoman Empire and the Ming Dynasty affected their social, political, and economic structures and organizations.
9.7c The Ottoman Empire and the Ming Dynasty had different views of the world and their place
in it. Islam under the Ottoman Empire and Neo-Confucianism under the Ming Dynasty influenced the political, economic, military, and diplomatic interactions with others outside of their realm
Unit 8
9.8 AFRICA AND THE AMERICAS PRE-1600: The environment, trade networks, and belief systems influenced the development of complex societies and civilizations in Africa and the Americas ca. 1325–1600. 
9.8a Complex societies and civilizations continued to develop in Africa and the Americas. The environment, the availability of resources, and the use of trade networks shaped the growth of the Aztec, Inca, and Songhai empires and East African city-states. This growth also influenced their economies and relationships with others.
9.8b Local traditional religions influenced the development of complex societies and civilizations in Africa and the Americas ca. 1325–1600.
9.8c Complex societies and civilizations made unique cultural achievements and contributions.
Unit 9
transformed politically, economically, and culturally ca. 1400–1750. This transformation included state building, conflicts, shifts in power and authority, and new ways of understanding their world. 
9.9a The Renaissance was influenced by the diffusion of technology and ideas. The Islamic caliphates played an important role in this diffusion.
9.9b The Reformation challenged traditional religious authority, which prompted a counter reformation that led to a religiously fragmented Western Europe and political conflicts. This religious upheaval continued the marginalization of Jews in European society
9.9c Absolutist governments emerged as Western European and Russian monarchs consolidated power and wealth.
9.9d The development of the Scientific Revolution challenged traditional authorities and beliefs.
9.9e The Enlightenment challenged views of political authority and how power and authority were conceptualized.
Unit 10
9.10 INTERACTIONS AND DISRUPTIONS: Efforts to reach the Indies resulted in the encounter between the people of Western Europe, Africa, and the Americas. This encounter led to a devastating impact on populations in the Americas, the rise of the transatlantic slave trade, and the reorientation of trade networks.
9.10a Various motives, new knowledge, and technological innovations influenced exploration and the development of European transoceanic trade routes.
9.10b Transatlantic exploration led to the Encounter, colonization of the Americas, and the Columbian exchange.
9.10c The decimation of indigenous populations in the Americas influenced the growth of the Atlantic slave trade. The trade of enslaved peoples resulted in exploitation, death, and the creation of wealth.
9.10d European colonization in the Americas and trade interactions with Africa led to instability, decline, and near destruction of once-stable political and cultural systems.
9.10e The Eastern Hemisphere trade networks were disrupted by the European development of new transoceanic trade across the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic Oceans. Shifts in global trade networks and the use of gunpowder had positive and negative effects on Asian and European empires. 
Last edited by S. Mactas 5/24/2022